5 STEPS TO IMPLEMENT DURING MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION | GALAXY M&E

5 STEPS TO IMPLEMENT DURING MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION

This procedure is generally applied to the electrical construction of buildings, hotels or other civil engineering constructions.

As a unit specializing in designing and constructing and mechatronic systems, Galaxy M&E would like to send readers an introduction about the process of conducting electrical system works. This procedure is generally applied to the electrical construction of buildings, hotels or other civil engineering constructions.

1. Overview of the electricity system in construction

In construction works / electromechanical construction, electrical systems can account for 30-50% of the total workload. There are power projects that can account for up to 80% of the total construction and installation volume. Electrical systems in buildings are usually divided into two parts: heavy power and light electricity.

Heavy power system:

– Transformer station – Capacitor for capacity compensation;

– ATS – Generator – UPS;

– TrunKing – Tray cable – ladder cable;

– Electrodynamic cabinets – Control;

– Wires – CB;

– Water pumps – Water pipes;

– Lighting systems;

– Anti-lightning system.

Simple power system:

– Telecommunication infrastructure system of the building;

– Computer network cable system, telephone cable, telephone exchange;

– CATV central television system;

– CCTV security camera system;

– Door phone system – Unlock and unlock with magnetic cards;

– Public broadcasting system;

– Vehicle access control system;

– Building management system.

2. Organization before construction, installation of electricity construction

As mentioned above, the electricity system can be interpreted as all the work done in order to bring electricity to devices and consume electricity. In order for the process of construction, electrical installation works must be safely done and on schedule to ensure the overall quality of the whole project.

5 steps to follows:

– Installation of protective pipes;

– Installation of electrical cables;

– Installation of electrical cabinets, electrical panels;

– Installation of electrical equipment;

– The work of inspection, acceptance, testing, operation.

Ống bảo vệ trong hệ thống cơ điện của Hoa Kỳ.

Protective tubes in the electrical system of the United States.

2.1. Install protective pipe

The purpose of installing the protective pipes is to ensure the best condition for the cable system, underground pipes, air-conditioner drainage pipes. Protective tubes used in construction can be flexible plastic, stainless steel, and can be easily bent. Locations of pipes may be buried underground in concrete walls and floors. The positions with technical floors, pipes going on the technical floor are placed.

Pipes placed in concrete floors are constructed after the construction worker has finished the iron floor layer. In the position where there is only one layer of iron floor, plastic pipes are placed on that layer of iron, and in places with two layers of iron, plastic pipes are placed between two layers of iron. At the junction, the pipes are bent by springs with a radius of 6 – 9 times the diameter of the pipe. Galaxy M&E doesn’t use the connector in these positions, which affects the wire pulling due to the extreme angle. Every turn from 3 branches or more Galaxy M&E uses boxes to facilitate wire pulling and checking. All the ends of the pipe with wires are sealed to prevent foreign matter from causing harder maintenance in the future. When underground pipes are placed in locations where pipe cuts and restricts connection, all heads will be cut and smoothed, this is to prevent wires from scratching when threading.

The pipes going through the underground walls are constructed after the first 5 days of wall construction to ensure the wall is hard enough not to crack. The distance between two pipe connectors shall not be shorter than 50 mm. Pipes buried underground in concrete walls or ceilings are always fixed with cement or concrete.

Tubes go in the wall vertically or in parallel. At the end of the tube is where the switch box, socket, light box is located. Light boxes in concrete floors will be stuffed with paper or styrofoam and wrapped with duct tape before fixing to the formwork to prevent concrete from entering. The inlet pipes are bent so that it is 7 mm from the formwork layer to avoid later cracking.

The pipe on the technical floor or in technical boxes are fixed and the distance between the clamps is not greater than 1200 mm. Screws and rawlplugs will be used to attach pipe clamps and holes drilled by an electric drill.

Light boxes, switch box boxes are placed at a height that is designed with water scales to accurately determine the level and use nivo ruler to ensure the boxes are fixed after installation.

The wires and cables are separated according to the color of the wire. Phase wires: Blue, red, yellow. Neutral wire: Black. Grounding wire: Green/yellow.

The wires and cables are separated according to the color of the wire. Phase wires: Blue, red, yellow. Neutral wire: Black. Grounding wire: Green/yellow.

2.2. Installation of power cables.

The construction of electrical wires and cables should be carried out after the installation process only when the protective pipe system is completed. The wiring is done by a team of experienced electromechanical workers, ensuring the wiring is simple to install, and is convenient for repairing and replacement. The number of wires in the pipe is calculated so that it occupies no more than 40% of the pipe cross-section which creates better conditions for replacement. The wires and cables are separated according to the color of the wire. Phase wires: Blue, red, yellow. Neutral wire: Black. Grounding wire: Green / yellow. The wires are segmented in accordance with the design drawings. The ends of the wires will be marked in the order of the electrical distribution cabinet to facilitate zoning if something goes wrong.

Galaxy M&E only performs wiring at junction boxes, switch boxes, outlet boxes and light boxes.  This minimizes short-circuit breakdowns due to unsecured joints and makes the repairing process and inspection easier. The wire and cable ends use cables to connect the device. The diameter of a cable end is suitable for wire. The joints and wires ensure absolute insulation throughout the system. The connectors and unconnected lines do not overlap on cross sections (must be staggered). When installing, the distance of the line is placed from the ceiling top to the edge of the door, the edge of the column is to not entangled when installing other items. After installation of the wiring system, Galaxy Electrical and Mechanical will test the lines insulation: Phase – phase, phase – earth, phase – neutral, neutral – earth.

Underground cable culverts are placed at a depth of at least 800 mm, at cross-roads or places with traffic the cable culverts will be threaded through PVC-protected concrete pipes. Make sure this is less than or equal to 40% to prevent heat dissipation of the wire. Galaxy M&E always uses long cables for all underground construction projects. During the cable construction and installation process, if a faulty cable is detected, a sharp object can damage the protective layer, if the cable is faulty which is produced by the manufacturer (such as bulging, heterogeneous), Galaxy M&E resolutely suspends and will immediately notify the investor, supervise the work to give timely measures, ensure quality and safety for the whole project.

Galaxy M&E always has the equipment installed in the electrical cabinet immediately after winning the bid to ensure the work schedule.

Galaxy M&E always has the equipment installed in the electrical cabinet immediately after winning the bid to ensure the work schedule.

2.3. Installing electrical cabinets, electrical panels

Electrical cabinets with wall mounted type pedestals: The installation of these cabinets will be combined with construction work. Iron bars and rawlplugs will be positioned before finishing the wall.

In the cabinets, the nameplates of the branches will be attached to facilitate later inspection and operation. The equipment in the cabinet is installed, connected, calibrated by senior mechanical and electrical engineers, which is tested by specialized equipment. Sized drawings and details of the equipment in the cabinet will be provided to the investor and supervision consultants before proceeding with the production and installation of cabinets. The switchboard will be manufactured and installed in accordance with the bidding documents and IEC standards.

Galaxy M&E always has the equipment installed in the electrical cabinet immediately after winning the bid to ensure the work schedule. Wall mounted electrical cabinets will be installed immediately after finishing the first coat of water-based paint.

Grounding wire for electrical panels are carried out from the position of installation to the main distribution cabinet to the position of earthed pile. Grounding piles will be carried out immediately after leveling the floor. After completing the number of piles in accordance with the design, soil resistance measurements will take place. If the resistance does not meet the design requirements, Galaxy M&E will proceed to add an earthing ground until that will measure soil resistance. When the earthing system is completed, the electrical box and equipment will be put in place according to the design so that they can be installed and connected.

All electrical equipment after installation will be connected by Galaxy M&E via the intelligent building control system BMS.

All electrical equipment after installation will be connected by Galaxy M&E via the intelligent building control system BMS.

2.4. Installation of electrical equipment

Before installing electrical equipment, Galaxy M&E will use the equipment and technical operations to check parameters and quality before being delivered to the project. This is to ensure the project operates smoothly and conveniently for all of the investors which avoids time-consumption causing delays in construction progress.

Devices such as lights, switches and sockets are installed after pulling the wire and finishing the last layer of paint. The position of lights are placed on the concrete floor is determined in the process of construction, concreting the technical floor. The recessed ceiling lights and concrete floor will be designed and processed to ensure the heat of the lamp when operating. Dimensions and details of the light fixture will be provided to the investor and supervised consultants before production.

The ends of the wires connected to the switch are peeled off, attached to the switch, socket and domino so that the part of the wire is plugged neatly in the wiring hole. This will prevent a short-circuit. The plucked wire section should not be short which will help prevent bad connections. Switches, sockets during installation are measured with nivo scales to ensure neatness.

When installing the wiring system and electrical equipment, Galaxy M&E always follows strict procedures, technical regulations, and always carefully checks the design drawings to ensure that the progress is being maintained. The positions of electrical boxes must be accurate in both position and height. The wires are always marked to distinguish easily, to avoid confusion.

During the installation of electrical equipment, Galaxy M&E always requires a team of workers not to damage or chip the wires protection shell. When fully installing electrical equipment, it is a requirement to conduct an electric shock test and to check the operation of the entire electricity system. If unsatisfactory, they must be re-checked thoroughly before the contractors hand over the works to the investors.

Testing is always assigned by Galaxy M&E to experienced electrical engineers.

Testing is always assigned by Galaxy M&E to experienced electrical engineers.

2.5. Connection checking and inspection

The connection of inspection, pre-acceptance test, electrical connection, testing and operation are the last steps done to ensure the execution and installation is done correctly in the electrical system of the project. Despite its completeness, this is a job that requires meticulous maximum. Any errors in the process of checking and inspection can lead to material damage, even life for the user. Because of such importance, this job has always been assigned by Galaxy M&E to the most experienced mechatronics engineers with the highest qualifications. The testing steps conducted by Galaxy Mechanical and Electrical JSC are as follows:

– First, proceed to press the first cable before installing into the connection point of the device. There is no need to use a terminal, if the connection point structure is of small capacity.

– Next, check the connection diagram, the voltage of the device from the catalog or on the equipment label before making the connection.

– Finally, label equipment codes for junction boxes, lights, air conditioners, fans, light levers and light poles to facilitate maintenance management later.

Above are 5 steps to conduct construction, installation of electrical works. The detailed content of the work will depend on the requirements of the investor, design documents, standards of TCVN and IEC. When carrying out construction, arising issues at the construction site and further request from the investor is unpredictable. Therefore, the experience of construction, installation and handling of problems during the M&E process is always a top priority for any electromechanical construction unit.

With 20 years of experience in consulting, designing, constructing and installing electromechanical systems, Galaxy M&E is confident that it will always be the initiator of new and quality values ​​for construction works.

Galaxy M&E

WHAT ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS WANT TO SAY ON CHRISTMAS DAY | GALAXY M&E

những điều chưa tỏ trong ngày giáng sinh_galaxy_me

On the occasion of Christmas, Galaxy M&E Contractors respectfully wants to send good wishes, peace, happiness to all colleagues, partners and customers.

What generations celebrate Christmas Day?

Before 1995, Christmas was a strange celebration for many religious people. In Hanoi, at that time, the Christmas atmosphere only appeared in churches. The concept of giving Christmas gifts, sending blessing and wishes at that time was not what the majority of people did (except for Catholics). The change began to appear when the generation born in the 80s came to the throne.

The Red Christmas hat was used as an indispensable accessory on Christmas Eve

The Red Christmas hat was used as an indispensable accessory on Christmas Eve.

If the generation born in the 70s were considered to be the hinge of positive changes in society, the generation born in 80s were considered to drive innovation. It was the generation born in 80s that brought Christmas into homes. They joined the Catholics, went to the church, put on Santa’s red top hats, and joyfully welcomed the birth of God.

Father Dac Lo - Father Alexandre de Rhodes, along with four pastors and a Japanese believer, arrived in Hoi An in the 16th century to bring the catholic religion into Vietnam which created the national language today.

Father Dac Lo – Father Alexandre de Rhodes, along with four pastors and a Japanese believer, arrived in Hoi An in the 16th century to bring the catholic religion into Vietnam which created the national language today.

Looking back at the history of the old Christmas occasions in Vietnam

Christmas is the day Jesus was born – He is considered God, the supreme being, representing faith, strength, peace and protection for Catholics. Catholicism came to Vietnam in the 16th century (1533), at the same time as the song We wish you a merry Christmas. Christmas in Vietnam is usually celebrated on December 24, the last day of the Advent season before Jesus’ birth.

The person who celebrated the first Christmas in Vietnam was Minh Duc Vuong Thai Phi – wife of Lord Nguyen Hoang. She joined Catholicism in 1625 and was given the name Saint Martin. Before coming to Catholicism, she was a devoted Buddhist. When she started to follow Catholicism, she was devoted herself to Catholicism. Father Dac Lo was a witness of her religious life: “During my time here, I met her. For 28 years, she has remained in the full practice of Catholic virtues. She used wise words to make many people who were very devoted to Buddhism in the country return to the Catholic faith, among which are relatives of Lord Nguyen. Today she is still the refuge of all of our missionaries.

During the Christmas season many shopping malls are filled.

During the Christmas season many shopping malls are filled.

Positive things that Christmas can bring are

Economic integration, this is due to the fact that Christmas is firstly very popular and is celebrated all over the world. In addition to ritual activities, beliefs, Christmas stimulates shopping promotions to boost the customers needs.

Not only in countries that have Catholicism as the national religion, even in Vietnam, images of Christmas appear flooded on signs, banners, pop-ups, from POSM to online advertising. Christmas is a “harvest” for anyone doing business, especially in consumer goods.

For professionals such as office workers, Christmas is an opportunity to show interest in friends and colleagues, especially for young people who are still single. There will be no better opportunity for the couple to hold hands and walk, enjoy the atmosphere, watch emotional films on Christmas Eve.

Young families will have a fun day and temporarily forget the busy year-end. There will be crowds in bars and restaurants, but it is this crowding that creates the warm atmosphere of Christmas.

Children are eager to write to Santa Claus. Small gifts will create joy to the children. And for the generation of students now, it's not just a gift, it is also a time where parents can reward  their children for working hard in their dedicated educational institutions

Children are eager to write to Santa Claus. Small gifts will create joy to the children. And for the generation of students now, it’s not just a gift, it is also a time where parents can reward their children for working hard in their dedicated educational institutions.

Electromechanical contractors create Christmas for all via street lights being displayed at night.

Electromechanical contractors create Christmas for all via street lights being displayed at night.

Christmas with electrical and mechanical contractors

Due to the professional characteristics the electromechanical contractors have, instead of smiling with the family during dinner time, they’d rather enjoy sweating. Their jobs, like it or not, still have to cling to the construction site. This is both a responsibility and a binding task with the investor – these are the people who spend money and the important friend of any M&E unit.

A delay, even an hour only, may be considered a breach of contract. No one can smile if the work is not completed. Therefore, the joy of electrical and mechanical engineers, of the craftsmen on Christmas day is the quality, light, the roar of the engines they connect on the construction sites.

The hard work that the contractor does will pay off with laughter in the family. No happiness is equal to the warmth that a wife and a child give to their father whenever they bring a smile to their family.

Galaxy M&E wishes a merry Christmas to everyone

Galaxy M&E wishes a merry Christmas to everyone.

Christmas greetings from mechanics

“The path that takes steps on roses”. Hard work is indispensable for each of us, but instead of scratching our heads, let’s continue to smile.

We whether religious or non-religious, whether rich or poor, whether hard or leisurely work, Christmas will be an opportunity to remember each other. We – God’s gift, let us pray that the most beautiful and radiant things will come to each and everyone’s life.

Faith in will, will be the power to help us overcome all hardships. Without faith, there is no hope like a broken circuit.

Along with strong belief in a bright future, on the occasion of Christmas, Galaxy Electrical Engineering Joint Stock Company would like to send the best wishes, peace, happiness to all colleagues, partners and customers.

May the best things happen to you and your family. Your happiness is also the joy of Galaxy M&E, it is the motivation for Galaxy M&E to continue the journey to START CREATING VALUES, for today and for the future.

Galaxy M&E

GALAXY M&E | WHY DOESN’T HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY KILL PEOPLE?

WHY DOESN’T HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY KILL PEOPLE

Galaxy M&E protects family via these safety regulations and rules. When the risk of an accident does not exist, electricity will become a “friend” to the family.

According to electrical safety standards in the home environment, when the air is less than 75% humidity, the voltage is considered safe when the magnitude does not exceed 60 Volts. However, the current source of electricity for living and manufacturing in Vietnam is 220 Volts (for wire voltage). With this voltage, fatal accidents can occur at any time if the power user is careless or lacks knowledge about accident prevention.

Unlike the offices and factories, domestic electricity is used by the majority of people without technical expertise in electricity. Target users include infants, the elderly, the disabled, etc. It is impossible to understand and master hundreds of electrical safety rules and techniques. To completely eliminate the risk of accidents in the use of electricity, Galaxy Electrical Engineering (Galaxy M&E) offers the following 16 tips:

Failure to adhere to electrical safety rules is a leading cause of death | Galaxy M&E.

Failure to adhere to electrical safety rules is a leading cause of death | Galaxy M&E.

1. The electrical conductors from the purchased electric meters must be a good type of wire, with insulation insulating in accordance with the current voltage level. The wire cross-section is large enough to carry multiple electrical devices.

Conductor section is specified as follows:

For copper wire: 1 mm2 copper conductor can withstand up to 6 Amps

For aluminum wires: 1 mm2 of aluminum conductor can withstand a maximum of 4.5 Amps

According to the Galaxy Electrical Engineering experts, people should only use 70% of the allowable capacity of the conductor, respectively 4 Amps / mm2 for copper wires and 3.15 Amps / mm2 for aluminum wires.

According to the above formula, the air-conditioning power supply, heater and other power-consuming devices with the capacity of over 2 kW must have a cross-section of 2.5 mm2.

Conductors for lighting systems need a minimum cross-section of 1.5 mm2. Conductors for computers, fans or other consumer devices with a total capacity of approximately 1 kW need a cross-section of 1 mm2. Other devices smaller than 1 KW or larger than 500 W require a cross-section of 0.75 mm2.

2. Indoor electrical wiring system from the end of the electric meter to the connection points, sockets must be placed in insulated pipes, including cases where the wires are underground or in walls.

3. A circuit breaker or a quick disconnecting device must be installed on the back of the galvanometer, at the main cord in the house, and at the end of each auxiliary wire branch. Install fuses in front of power outlets to quickly disconnect the electric current when there is a short-circuit or overload, to prevent electrical fires.

4. Do not touch the hands or any part of the body with electricity without the cover or flaking, broken, broken insulation of electric wires, power sockets, fuses, circuit breakers, switches, and wire connectors.

Curiosity of children is the risk of electrical accidents if adults do not take precautions | Galaxy M&E.

Curiosity of children is the risk of electrical accidents if adults do not take precautions | Galaxy M&E.

5. For families with young children, the power outlets must have plugs to prevent children from sticking their fingers or sticking sharp objects into the electric socket, causing fatal electric shock.

6. When using hand-held power tools such as hand-held drills, hand-held grinding machines one must wear low-voltage insulated gloves to prevent electric shock when the tool is detected.

7. Absolutely do not use wet, sticky hands to close the circuit breaker, fuse or touch the electrical connection points, and avoid any contact between the power line and the device.

8. When repairing electricity in your home, cut off the circuit breaker and warn family members to never turn on the switch / breaker. Before repairing, wear protective gloves, thick rubber / plastic sandals or stand on wooden chairs to prevent the earthing system from causing power leakage.

9. Do not place heating equipment near explosive objects to prevent fires in the house.

Eliminate the peeling of the power cord from household appliances | Galaxy M&E.

Eliminate the peeling of the power cord from household appliances | Galaxy M&E.

10. Do not use poor quality electrical equipment, wires, electrical appliances.

11. Absolutely do not use electrical appliances, electrical outlets with long wires in areas where young children often appear. Children often play, running and jumping, long wires will be an obstacle that causes children to fall, spill electrical appliances, disconnect wires to create electrical leakage.

12. Do not shoot firearms or throw earth, stones, household utensils, household appliances, or shoot firecrackers at electric lines or transformer stations because they may cause broken wires which can lead to electrical leakage spilling into the surrounding environment.

13. Do not install a TV antenna near power lines or stations because of storms or tornadoes that may cause the antenna to fall, which can cause short-term shock and electrical discharge.

14. Don’t carry objects near transmission lines and power stations of 15 kV that is within 2 m  to 4 m of transmission lines and substations of 110 kV in case of electrical shock.

The positions may be struck by lightning | Galaxy M&E.

The positions may be struck by lightning | Galaxy M&E.

1. Mái nhà 1. House roofs
2. Anten TV 2. TV antennas
3. Ống khói, lỗ thông hơi, giếng trời 3. Chimneys, vents, skylights
4. Đường điện thoại, cáp internet 4. Telephone lines, internet cables
5. Cây xanh 5. Trees
6. Cửa Garage ô tô 6. Garage gates
7. Hệ thống cáp điện ngầm 7. Underground cable system
8. Hệ thống tưới nước ngoài nhà 8. Outside watering system

15. When there is rain, thunderstorms or storms, absolutely do not touch the electricity poles, transformer stations, electric masts, ground wires, galvanometer boxes, and breaker boxes.

16. When detecting fallen poles or broken wires, the viewers must not approach. Warn people around the dangerous areas and immediately notify the local authorities or power transmission company to take appropriate measures and dealings.

17. Check and disconnect electrical appliances (light bulbs, fans, air conditioners, irons, water heaters, microwaves) before leaving home.

18. Disconnect a circuit breaker before going on holiday or going away from home for an extended amount of time. This ensures the elimination of any incidents involving power consumption equipment.

Loại bỏ các thiết bị điện cũ, bị bong chóc lớp vỏ cách điện | Galaxy M&E.

Eliminate old electrical equipment, peeling insulation/insulation layer | Galaxy M&E.

Above are 18 essential tips for families when using electricity on a day to day basis. Applying the contents correctly and fully given by Galaxy M&E ensures safety when utilizing electricity. When the risk of an electrical accident does not exist, it becomes a useful and friendly appliance for all family members.

Galaxy M&E

3 FIRST STEPS ON RESPONDING TO ELECTRIC SHOCKS | GALAXY MECHANICAL

3 FIRST STEPS ON RESPONDING TO ELECTRIC SHOCKS

In order to contribute to society to minimize the risks and damage caused by electrical accidents, Galaxy M&E would like to send readers the 3 necessary steps to conduct first aid for electrical shocks.

Electrical accidents are the most dangerous of labor accidents. After only 0.2 seconds of contact with the voltage, the victim’s life can be permanently stripped away. Although the awareness of electrical safety among most workers have risen, it seems that the electrical accidents still continue. If a victim of an electrical incident is given timely and proper first aid, the damage to their health will be reduced, one will have many chances to recover. In order to contribute to society to minimize the risks and damage caused by electrical accidents, Galaxy Electrical Engineering would like to send readers the 3 necessary steps to conduct first aid for electrical shocks.

1. ACKNOWLEDGE THE ELECTRICITY

People who get electrocuted often have skin burns, and the face is white and purple. Long cardiac arrest will cause the pupils to widen. In case of being shocked by high voltage electricity, the victim may appear with marks due to the scorching of the electrical current. In case of multiple injuries due to the impact of electrical current, the victim’s leg, arm may be broken, dislocated, skull injury, spine injury. If the victim is severely impacted, it may result in skin bleeding or internal hematoma.

When an electric shock is found, it is necessary to quickly isolate the victim from the electrical source

When an electric shock is found, it is necessary to quickly isolate the victim from the electrical source | Galaxy M&E

2. FIRST AID METHOD TO HELP AN ELECTRICAL VICTIM

2.1. Isolate the victim from electrical sources

Isolate the victim from the source of electricity

It is necessary to quickly isolate the power supply by cutting off the switches, circuit breakers, and mains.

When cutting off the power source, attention should be paid to:

– If the victim is at a high place, it is necessary to take measures to catch and support him or her when they fall down.

– You can use a hammer with an insulating handle to break the wire.

In case of the failure to isolate the victim from the electricity source:

If the accident is caused by low voltage

Persons conducting first aid need to take personal safety measures in the best way possible  before conducting first aid for victims. After preparing protective measures, use insulated objects such as a pole, bamboo stick or dry wooden stick to separate the power cord from the victim.

If the victim holds on to the power cord, first aiders must stand on insulated objects such as wooden platforms, rubber mats / insulated boots, and insulated gloves to remove the power source from the victim.

If the person has an accident due to high voltage

In case of detecting victims that have suffered from accidents due to high voltage electricity, if there are no specialized forces at the scene, the first-aiders must immediately notify the people in charge of the electricity to conduct electricity cut-off. Before separating the victim from the power source, first aid operators must be equipped with full electrical safety protection such as: Insulated rubber boots, insulated gloves or insulated stirrers …

In the absence of the above safety devices, it is necessary to take copper wire or aluminum wire and grounded steel wire at one end and throwing it on the line to create short-circuit phases. When throwing, one should absolutely avoid the cable which is in contact with the victim’s body. Use measures to prevent the consequences of fall damage from occurring.

Immediately after assessing/assessing the victim's health status, call 911 or the nearest medical facility immediately before taking first-aid measures. Galaxy M&E

Immediately after assessing/assessing the victim’s health status, call 911 or the nearest medical facility immediately before taking first-aid measures | Galaxy M&E.

2.2. Assess the victim’s health status and conduct first aid

After separating the victim from the power source, it is necessary to observe, assess the situation and assess the health condition of the victim in order to take appropriate first-aid measures.

The case where the victim has not lost consciousness

The victim has not lost consciousness and has weakness of breathing, and is suffering from comatose. In this case, the victim’s body should be checked to know the extent of injury if any. The priority is to check the  neck vertebrae because injuries here can cause permanent paralysis which needs to be taken care of as soon as possible. After understanding the health condition, move the victim to a cool, quiet place. The next thing is to take the victim to the nearest medical facility to continue to carry out other necessary emergency measures.

The case of the victim has lost consciousness

When performing first aid and the victim then loses consciousness (lay, call, structure …) do not react. If victim is still breathing, and has a weak heartbeat, place them in a well-ventilated area. Loosen clothes and waist belts to allow less restrictive breathing. Then, have the victim smell ammonia / urine, heat up the body via massaging the victim, call medical staff to transfer the victim to the nearest medical facility.

The victim has stopped breathing

If the victim has stopped breathing and the heart beat stops, the victim should be placed in a well-ventilated, leveled area, loosened with clothing and belt, wipe off blood, saliva and other contaminants in the mouth and nose area. Check the victim’s mouth for problems and perform artificial respiration, compressing the heart outside the chest. If able, immediately transfer victim to medical facility. During the transport process, first-aid personnel should continuously perform CPR.

Cases of multiple injuries

Multiple injuries are results of electrical currents that cause the victim to curl up, failing to take control of the posture causing the body to fall / collide with the environment and surrounding objects. Multiple injuries can take the form of;  dislocated joints, sprains, fractures, skin tears or organ damage.

Manifestations of closed fractures, sprains, dislocations, internal injuries are all characterized by pain, swelling, bruising of the affected area. Victims suffering from this type of trauma often lose their motor functional skills or is hesitate to move because of pain.

In the case of a victim that has multiple trauma and an active cardiopulmonary, as soon as the injury is known, the rescuer should coordinate with the surrounding people to move the victim to a safe place after which, call a health care provider and take care of the wounds (if broken, dislocated) either bandage or stop the bleeding if this skin damage does occur.

If the victim suffers from multiple trauma and stops breathing, immediately call the paramedics and take the victim to the nearest medical facility. During the move, if the victim does not suffer from damage to the chest area, spine, head, then perform artificial respiration, compressing the heart outside the chest to help the victim recover. Other cases require timely intervention and support by emergency services 115.

Tuyệt đối không thực hiện ép tim ngoài lồng ngực với nạn nhân bị chấn thương vùng ngực và/hoặc cột sống | Galaxy M&E.

Absolutely do not perform chest compressions with victims injured chest and/or spine | Galaxy M&E.

2.3. Give artificial respiration and chest compressions

For victims who stop breathing but do not suffer from damage to the chest, head and spine area, after calling medical staff, they need to immediately perform artificial respiration methods, by performing CPR.

Posture of the victim before performing CPR, chest compressions: Place the victim on his back on a hard surface, legs higher than head. Do not leave the casualty on a mattress during first aid.

Ways of CPR combined with chest compressions:

Keep your hands on top of each other, fingers crossed, then use your full wight to press into 1/3 of the breastbone above your heart. If there are 2 people participating in the CPR process, one must push down on the chests 5 times and the other one must use mouth to mouth 1 time. If only one person, every 15 times of forced pressure the heart is give asphyxiation 2 times. Do this regularly until the victim is awake, breathing again, and has pink lips once again, noticing a pulse in the wrist and an ambulance transporting the victim to the hospital. During the move, every 3 minutes must be used to monitor the victim’s face, pulse, pupils and  breathing.

Nạn nhân bị điện giật chỉ được coi là tử vong sau khi có kết quả chẩn đoán thông qua các phương tiện chẩn đoán hiện đại và có sự kết luận của bệnh viện nơi tiến hành hồi sức cấp cứu | Galaxy M&E.

Electrical shock victims are only considered dead after diagnosis through modern diagnostic facilities and conclusions of the hospital where emergency resuscitation is carried out | Galaxy M&E.

3. NOTICE TO TAKE WHEN PERFORMING FIRST AID ON ELECTRICAL SHOCK VICTIMS

  • When the power is turned off, it is necessary to prevent the victim from falling / causing the accident to get worse;
  • Persons conducting first aid for victims, first aiders must not use their bare hands to pull victims out of the power source before the electricity is disconnected.
  • All emergency rescue work for cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest requires emergency personnel to be calm, swift, perform properly and control the site where the incident took place.
  • In the process of transporting victims to medical facilities, they must continue the emergency work and closely monitor and detect any irregularities and there after treat the patient accordingly.
  • Special note: The world has recorded many cases of electrical shock victims died after conducting burial. During the process of burial / excavation of the tombs, it was discovered that the victim’s body was dislocated, the joints were in a convulsive position, not as neat as before. Coffins sometimes have many scratches suspected to scratch the victim. These are truly unfortunate deaths, leaving pain for not only the victims but also those around them. Therefore, the first-aid process for electrical shocks need to be persistent and continuous. Time for victims to recover heart / lung damage can last for several days, requiring the active support of many medical equipment and a team of emergency specialists. Victims are only considered to die after the diagnosis results through modern diagnostic facilities and the conclusions of the hospital where emergency resuscitation is conducted.

Above are all things to know before conducting first aid for victims that have suffered from electrical accidents. To minimize the risks caused by electrical accidents, each individual needs to equip themselves with the basic knowledge of electrical safety. Absolutely do not participate in operating, repairing power-consuming equipment without professional knowledge. Do not go into the zone where electrical malfunction occur.

For individuals engaged in the field of construction, installation, operation and repair of M&E works, they need to understand the consequences of electrical accidents, the State’s regulations on electricity safety, must be understood. Attend electrical safety training before starting work.

Galaxy M&E

GALAXY M&E | 6 REGULATIONS REGARDING ELECTRICAL SAFETY TRAINING

REGULATIONS REGARDING ELECTRICAL SAFETY TRAINING

As a unit specializing in consulting, designing and constructing of mechanical and electrical works with the desire to create safety and have sustainable values ​​for customers, Galaxy M&E would like to send to readers a detailed copy of regulations that one should follow in their homes, countries regarding electrical training, ranking and issuance.

Occupational safety and prevention of electrical accidents is always a matter of concern for businesses and workers. Unlike mechanical accidents, the risks of electrical accidents are difficult to detect through hearing and sight. Electrical accidents are only known when incidents occur due to  the contact of a charged material. In order to avoid the risk of electrical incidents and accidents from occurring, employers and individual workers need to attend training courses on electricity safety and incident prevention.

The organization of safety training courses for workers and electricity users is simple but the quality and content of the courses are still questionable. This exists due to the failure to fully understand the Government regulations, training curriculum framework, training content, and conditions for issuing electricity safety cards. Although the search of Government documents regulating labor safety and preventing accidents caused by electricity is easy, not all individuals and organizations actively learn. As a unit specializing in consulting, designing and constructing of electrical and mechanical works with the desire to create safe and sustainable values ​​for customers, Galaxy M&E would like to send to readers the detailed regulations of the Government regarding training, ranking and issuance of electrical safety tags. This content is specified in the Circular No. 31/2014-BCT of the Ministry of Industry and Trade.

Sử dụng đầy đủ bảo hộ lao động được làm từ vật liệu cách điện là cách giảm thiểu tai nạn do điện gây ra.

Making full use of labor protection made from insulating materials is a way to minimize accidents caused by electricity.

I. GENERAL CONTENT OF CIRCULAR NO. 31/2014-BCT

Subjects of application: This Circular applies to organizations and individuals that conduct electricity activities and use electricity on the territory of Vietnam, other relevant organizations and individuals.

Terms used in the Circular:

  • Persons operating and repairing electricity in rural, mountainous, border or island areas are employees of electricity units operating under the Law on Cooperatives, operating in rural, mountainous or border areas. world and island.
  • The operator, experiment, construction and repair of power lines or electrical equipment in an enterprise is an employee of the following units: Generation, transmission, distribution, construction, installation, use of electricity for manufacturing (with its own substation) operating under the Enterprise Law.
  • The employer is the legal representative or authorized person of the organization, individual or unit directly managing the employee.

II. PROVISIONS OF THE CIRCULAR ON TRAINING FOR SAFETY, REPAYING AND GRANTING ELECTRIC SAFETY CARDS

1. The content of Circular No. 31/2014-BCT includes 6 chapters and 20 articles, in which the content of electricity safety training is specified in 6 articles of chapter II.

1. Article 4. Individuals given training, grade and card regarding electrical safety

1.1. Operators, testers, builders and repairmen for power lines and electrical equipment, including dispatchers and workers who install, remove, check and inspect electricity measurement systems.

1.2. Electrical operators and repairmen in rural and mountainous areas, border areas and islands.

2. Article 5. Theoretical training

2.1. General training

a) Electrical diagrams and requirements for electrical safety assurance

b) Safety assurance measures for works in progress: Conduct field surveys and make written records (if required), establish plans, register tasks, organize units, require assignment sheets or orders before performing tasks, abide by work permission procedures, supervise safety issues at work, conform to work completion procedures and switch on power.

c) Technical measures for preparation of safe workplace: Cut and prevent power from turning back on in work areas, check the presence of electric power, set up barriers, place warning boards and prohibition signs, and establish safe work zone.

d) Measures for identification and eradication of risks that may lead to problems and work accidents and methods for separation of electrocution victims from power source and first aid approaches

e) Features, effects, uses, maintenance methods, regulations on inspection (test) of safety equipment and work instruments commensurate with workers’ assignments.

2.2. Specific training

a) Operators of transmission lines and electrical equipment

– For transmission lines:

  • Procedures for operation and handing of transmission lines’ issues;
  • Safety practice during: Examination of transmission lines, undertaking of live-line or off-line works, removal and trimming of plants in and near the protection barriers of transmission lines, work at height.

– For electrical equipment:

  • Operational procedures, problem handling procedures, safety procedures for electrical equipment and substations;
  • Safety practice during: Examination of electrical equipment, start or shutdown of electrical equipment, handling of electrical equipment and direct current systems;
  • Prevention and extinguishment of fire in electrical equipment and substations.

b) Electrical builders

– Safe practice during groundworks for electricity pylons and trenching work for underground electrical wires;

– Safety practice during installation and erection of pylons;

– Safe wiring practice for transmission lines and anti-lightning cords;

– Safe practice during installation of electrical equipment.

c) Electrical testers

– Operational procedures, problem handling procedures, safety procedures for apparatus of test stations and laboratories, test safety measures;

– Safe practice during separate tests for power generators, voltage and current transformers, electrical wires’ insulation.

d) Repairmen for transmission lines and electrical equipment

– For transmission lines: Safe practice during repair of transmission lines turned off, transmitting electricity in dependently or exposed to other live lines’ effects;

– For electrical equipment: Safe practice upon handling of electrical equipment such as transformers, circuit breakers, power generators, high-voltage electric motors, capacitors, direct current systems.

e) Workers who install, remove, check and inspect electricity measurement systems on site

Safe practice during installation, removal, checking and inspection of offline and live-line electricity measurement systems on site.

3. Article 6. Practical training

3.1. Use, maintenance, examination and testing of safety equipment and work instruments commensurate with workers’ assignments.

3.2. Methods for separation of electrocution victims from power source and first aid approaches.

3.3. Safe practices commensurate with workers’ assignments.

4. Article 7. Organization of training

4.1. Employers shall bear the following responsibilities regarding workers as stated in Section 1, Article 4 of this Circular:

a) Prepare written materials and stipulate training schedule that correspond with workers’ safety grade and occupations;

b) Select trainers as per Section 3 of this Article;

c) Organize training, examinations, grading and issuance of cards regarding electrical safety for workers who have passed tests. If they fail tests in theory or practice, failed parts of the training must be re-taken;

d) Manage and supervise internal training, grading and issuance of cards regarding electrical safety.

4.2. Department of Industry and Trade shall bear the following responsibilities for workers as defined in Section 2, Article 4 of this Circular:

a) Prepare written materials and stipulate training schedule commensurate with safety grade and assignments of electrical operators and repairmen in rural and mountainous areas, border areas and islands;

b) Select trainers as per Section 3 of this Article;

c) Organize training, examinations, grading and issuance of cards regarding electrical safety for workers who have passed tests. If they fail tests in theory or practice, failed parts of the training must be re-taken at employers’ requests.

4.3. Trainers

a) Theory trainers must possess university qualifications and at least 5 years’ expertise in specialist activities that they coach.

b) Practical trainers must possess at least college qualifications and 5 year’s work experience in specialist activities that they coach.

4.4. Form and duration of training

a) Initial training: It is given to new recruits. The duration of an initial training must be at least 24 hours.

b) Periodic training: It occurs on annual basis. The duration of a periodic training must be at least 8 hours.

c) Re-training: It is given to workers changing positions or safety grade, using new equipment or technology, failing tests or resuming after at least 6 months’ absence from work. The duration of a retraining must be at least 12 hours.

4.5. Depending on specific conditions:

Employers may organize separate electrical safety trainings, as the case may be, according to this Circular or combine trainings in work safety, work hygiene, fire fighting or other regulated drills.

4.6. Employers incur expenses of training and card issuance.

5. Article 8. Electrical safety grade

There shall be 5 grades of electrical safety, from 1/5 to 5/5.

5.1. Requirements on each electrical safety grade.

a) Grade 1/5:

– Accomplishment of at least 80% of the initial training in theory and practice;

– Possession of knowledge of general regulations for assurance of safety during performance of assignments;

– Compliance with regulations on use and management of safety equipment and work instruments provided.

b) Grade 2/5:

– Possession of knowledge of general regulations and safety measures for assurance of safety during performance of assignments;

– Compliance with regulations on use and management of safety equipment and work instruments provided;

– Possession of knowledge of methods for separation of electrocution victims from power source;

– Possession of knowledge of first-aid approaches for electrocution victims.

c) Grade 3/5:

– Similar requirements for grade 2/5;

– Possession of abilities to detect violations and unsafe behaviors;

– Possession of knowledge for examination and supervision of workers coping with power lines or electrical equipment.

d) Grade 4/5:

– Similar requirements for grade 3/5;

– Possession of thorough knowledge of responsibilities and work scope of each division joining in assignments;

– Possession of knowledge for safe practices and supervision of workers at work;

– Possession of abilities to analyze and investigate electrical problems and accidents.

d) Grade 5/5:

– Similar requirements for grade 4/5;

– Possession of abilities to cooperate with other divisions, to give instructions, to organize safety measures and to inspect and supervise the performance of tasks.

5.2. Occupational eligibility by safety grade

a) Personnel graded 1/5 shall be eligible for:

– Assignments that require no contact with energized equipment or transmission lines;

– Provision of supports to divisions that cope with electrical equipment and transmission lines.

b) Personnel graded 2/5 shall be eligible for:

– Assignments given to holders of grade 1/5;

– Assignments in areas where electric power has been entirely cut.

c) Personnel graded 3/5 shall be eligible for:

– Assignments given to holders of grade 2/5;

– Assignments in areas where electric power has been partially cut;

– Live-line work with low-voltage lines and equipment;

– Performance of works on high-voltage power grids;

– Examination of substations and power lines in operation;

– Provision of work orders, direct instructions and permission to divisions and supervision of their working on low-voltage power grids.

c) Personnel graded 4/5 shall be eligible for:

– Assignments given to holders of grade 3/5;

– Live-line work with low-voltage and high-voltage lines and equipment;

– Provision of assignment sheets, work orders, direct instructions and permission to divisions and supervision of their working on transmission lines and electrical equipment.

d) Personnel graded 5/5 shall fulfill all tasks assigned.

6. Article 9. Electrical safety card

6.1. Card issuance

a) New cards shall be issued to workers who have received initial training and passed tests or who change occupations.

b) Cards shall be reissued to workers who lost or damaged their cards.

c) Cards shall be revised and reissued to workers who change safety grade.

d) The time limit for issuance, re-issuance and revision of workers’ cards as per Section 1, Article 4 of this Circular must not exceed 05 working days upon workers’ accomplishment of initial training, periodic training, retraining and tests or upon their petitions for replacement of cards damaged or lost.

d) The time limit for issuance, re-issuance and revision of workers’ cards as per Section 2, Article 4 of this Circular must not exceed 10 working days upon workers’ accomplishment of initial training, periodic training, retraining and tests or upon the Department of Industry and Trade’s receipt of their petitions for replacement of cards lost or damaged. Employers that employ workers as stated in Section 2, Article 4 of this Circular shall be responsible for submitting 01 application for training and card issuance to the Department of Industry and Trade by hand or by post. Such application includes:

  • The employer’s letter of application that specifies: Full name, occupation and current safety grade of the workers;
  • 02 portrait photos (2×3 cm) and previous electrical safety cards (if available) of the workers.

e) The sample card as per Appendix I in this Circular.

6.2. Usage

a) Term of validity: Upon issuance to the date of revocation.

b) Workers at work must carry and show electrical safety cards at requests of employers or electrical safety inspectors.

6.3. Revocation

a) Electrical safety cards shall be revoked upon workers’ transfer or discontinuation of employment.

b) Card issuers shall be responsible for card revocation.

Nghề cơ điện đòi hỏi phải luôn ghi nhớ các nguyên tắc về an toàn điện.

Electrical and mechanical engineering requires the constant remembering of electrical safety principles.

Above is the content of the Government regulations on training, ranking and granting electric safety card. Other contents such as the 2015 Law on Occupational Safety and Health, the revised Decree No. 44/2016 / ND-CP of the Government, the Circular No. 13/2016 / TT-BLĐ of the Ministry of Labor – Trade The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs complements the regulations on occupational safety and sanitation in general.

Galaxy M&E

3 ELECTRICAL SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR INDIVIDUALS

An toàn cơ điện dành cho cá nhân

Out of 27 articles of Decree No.14/2014/ND-CP guiding the implementation of the Electricity Law on electricity safety, 3 articles apply to all individuals and organizations living in Vietnam. Details of this will be discussed below.

One of the causes leading to electrical accidents is due to ignorance, intentional or unintentional violations of regulations on safe distance of discharges, building houses in the area of ​​protecting electricity grid safety corridors. When electrical problems occur, not only are individuals affected, but people and property are also impacted. Because of this, Decree No.14/2014/ND-CP was established to provide detailed provisions for the implementation of articles regarding electrical safety. Out of 27 articles of Decree No.14/2014/ND-CP guiding the implementation of the Electricity Law on electricity safety, 3 articles apply to all individuals and organizations living in Vietnam. Details of this will be discussed below.

Chiều cao tối thiểu của dây dẫn điện tại điểm thấp nhất khi dây dẫn ở trạng thái võng cực đại bằng 4,5 mét cộng với khoảng cách an toàn phóng điện theo cấp điện áp.

At the cross sections between overhead conducting line, road and railway the minimum height of conductor at the lowest point when the conductor is in the state of maximum deflection is equal to 4.5 meters plus the security distance according to voltage level.

1. Safety distance of electrical discharge by voltage level (Article 10)

1.1. The safety distance of electrical discharge by voltage level is specified in Clause 1, Article 51 of the Electricity Law in the following table:

Voltage

Up to 22 kV

Đến 22 kV 35 kV 110kV 220 kV
Insulated wire Naked wire Insulated wire Naked wire Naked wire Naked wire
Safety distance of electrical discharge 1,0 m 2,0 m 1,5 m 3,0 m 4,0 m 6,0 m

1.2. The safety distance of electrical discharge by voltage level specified in Clause 4, Article 51 of the Electricity Law is the minimum distance from the conducting wire to the nearest point of equipment, tool and working means in the safety corridor of high-voltage grid and is specified in the following table:

Voltage Up to 22 kV 35 kV 110kV 220 kV 500 kV
Safety distance of electrical discharge 4,0 m 4,0 m 6,0 m 6,0 m 8,0 m

1.3. The safety distance of electrical discharge by voltage level specified in Clause 5, 6 and 7, Article 51 of the Electricity Law is the minimum distance from the conducting wire at the state of deflection to the highest point of the protected subjects and is specified in the following table:

Voltage Safety distance of electrical discharge Up to 35 kV 110 kV 220 kV 500 kV
Up to the highest point (4.5 m) of the road vehicles 2.5 m 2.5 m 3.5 m 5.5 m
Up to the highest point (4.5 m) of the railway vehicles and works or up to the highest point (7.5 m) of the railway means and works operated with electricity. 3.0 m 3.0 m 4.0 m 7.5 m
Up to the clearance height at technical level of inland waterway 1.5 m 2.0 m 3.0 m 4.5 m

Tuyệt đối không trồng cây xanh trong phạm vi bảo vệ đường dây cao thế.

Absolutely do not plant trees within the protection of high tension power lines.

2. Trees in and outside the safety corridor of overhead conducting line (Article 12)

2.1. In case there are trees in the safety corridor of overhead conducting line, the distance is specified as follows:

a) For conducting line with voltage up to 35 kV in cities, towns…, the distance from any point of the trees to the conducting wire in the state of maximum deflection is not less than the distance specified in the following table:

Voltage

Up to 35 kV
Distance Insulated wire Insulated wire
0,7 m 1,5 m

b) For the line with voltage from 110 kV to 500 kV in cities, towns…, the trees must not be higher than the lowest conducting line except for special cases, there must be technical measures to ensure the safety permitted by the People’s Committees of provinces and centrally-run cities (provincial People’s Committees). The distance from any point of the trees to the conducting line at the state of maximum deflection must not be less than the distance specified in the following table:

Voltage 110 kV 220 kV 500 kV
Distance Naked wire
2,0 m 3,0 m 4,5 m

c) For the lines outside cities, towns…, the distance from the highest point of the trees vertically to the height of the lowest conducting line at the state of maximum deflection is not less than the distance specified in the following table:

Voltage Up to 35 kV 110 kV 220 kV 500 kV
Distance Insulated wire Naked wire Naked wire
0,7 m 2,0 m 3,0 m 4,0 m 6,0 m

d) For the overhead conducting line across special-use forest, protection forest, production forest and garden, the vertical distance from the average height of trees maximally grown to the lowest conducting line at the state of maximum deflection must not be less than distance specified at Point c, Clause 1 of this Article.

2.2. In case the trees are outside the safety corridor of overhead conducting line and outside the cities, towns…, the distance from any part of tree when the tree falls to any part of line must not be less than the distance specified in the following table:

Voltage Up to 35 kV 110 and 220 kV 500 kV
Distance 0,7 m 1,0 m 2,0 m

2.3. For trees which rapidly grow within 03 months and possibly violate the distance specified in Clause 1 and 2 of this Article. For the trees which have no longer economic efficiency must be fallen and not be planted again.

2.4. Rice, crops and plants must only be planted at least 0.5 m from the pole foundation and sleeper.

3. Existing conditions of houses and works within the safety corridor of overhead conducting line with voltage up to 220 kV (Article 13)

Houses and constructional works are permitted to exist within the safety corridor of overhead conducting line with voltage up to 220 kV if meeting the following conditions:

3.1. Roof and wall must be made of non-combustible materials.

3.2. No obstruction of way in and out for testing, maintenance and replacement of parts of high-voltage grid.

3.3. The distance from any part of houses or works to the nearest conducting line when the line is at the state of maximum deflection is not less than the distance specified in the following table:

Voltage Up to 35 kV 110 kV 220 kV
Distance 3,0 m 4,0 m 6,0 m

3.4. The electric field intensity is less than 5 kV/m at any point outside the house and one meter (01) from the ground and less than or equal to 1 kV/m at any point inside the house and one meter (01) from the ground.

3.5. For houses and works within the safety corridor of overhead conducting line with voltage of 220 kV, besides meeting the above conditions, the metal structures of houses and works must be connected to earth under regulations on earthing techniques.

3.6. The Ministry of Industry and Trade stipulates in detail the scope and earthing techniques of metal structure of houses and works within and adjacent to the safety corridor of overhead conducting line with voltage from 220 kV and above.

Nắm được đầy đủ các nội quy về an toàn điện sẽ giúp loại bỏ hoàn toàn nguy cơ tai nạn do điện gây ra.

Knowing the rules of electrical safety will completely eliminate the risk of electric-related accidents.

The above are specific provisions of Decree No. 14/2014/ND-CP related to individuals and organizations participating in the use of electricity and / or living in Vietnam. For individuals who directly install, operate, repair electrical equipment, employers need to organize electrical safety training courses as prescribed in Circular No. 31/2014-BCT of Ministry of Industry and Trade.

Galaxy M&E

SUMMARY OF 7 REGULATIONS ON ELECTRICAL SAFETY FOR ENTERPRISES

An toàn cơ điện cho doanh nghiệp | Galaxy M&E

The following article will be provided by Galaxy M&E detailing 7 regulations on electrical safety for businesses in general and are included in Vietnam’s Electricity Law.

In 2004, the Government issued the Electricity Law with 10 chapters 70 articles applicable to organizations and individuals conducting electricity activities, using electricity or having other activities related to electricity in Vietnam. One of the important purposes of the Electricity Law is to ensure labor safety and prevent accidents caused by electricity. The following article will be provided by Galaxy M&E detailing 7 regulations on electrical safety for businesses in general and are included in Vietnam’s Electricity Law.

I. INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY LAW IN 2004

The Electricity Law of Vietnam was passed on the 3rd of December 2004 at the 6th session, National Assembly. By the 20th of November 2012, 25 articles out of 70 articles of the Electricity Law 2004 were amended and supplemented by the XIII National Assembly.

The amendments and supplements mainly concern organizations and units that carry out activities of production, transmission, distribution, dispatching of electricity systems, conduct electricity, market transactions, wholesale and retail electricity.

Out of 70 articles of the Electricity Law, 7 regulations on electrical safety apply to all individuals / organizations living in Vietnam. These regulations are concentrated in Articles 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 59 and are not within the scope of the amendments and supplements to Law No. 24/2012 / QH13.

Safe distance between high-voltage lines and construction works.

Safe distance between high-voltage lines and construction works.

II. REGULATIONS ON ELECTRIC SAFETY

1. Article 50. High-voltage electricity grid safety protection corridors

1. A high-voltage electricity grid safety corridor is the delimited space along an electricity transmission line or around a transformer station and specified according to voltage level.

2. The high-voltage electricity grid safety protection corridor includes:

a) The overhead electricity transmission line safety protection corridor;

b) The underground electric cable safety protection corridor;

c) The transformer station safety protection corridor.

3. The Government shall specify the high-voltage electricity grid safety protection corridors.

Safe distance to overhead power lines | Galaxy M&E

Safe distance to overhead power lines | Galaxy M&E.

2. Article 51. Overhead electricity transmission line safety protection

1. Owners or users of dwelling houses or works, which are allowed to exist in the overhead electricity transmission line safety protection corridors must not use the roofs or any parts of such dwelling houses or works for purposes, which may encroach upon the electricity discharge safety distance according to the voltage grades and must comply with the regulations on protection of overhead electricity transmission line safety when repairing, renovating the dwelling houses or works.

2. Before granting permits to organizations or individuals for construction, expansion or renovation of dwelling houses or works in the overhead electricity transmission line safety protection corridors, the permit-granting agencies must request the investing owners of such dwelling houses or works to agree in writing with the high-voltage electricity grid-managing units on measures to protect the safety of the overhead electricity transmission lines and the safety in the course of construction, expansion, renovation and use of such dwelling houses or works.

3. Dwelling houses and works where people regularly live or work must not be allowed to exist in the safety protection corridors of the overhead electricity transmission lines of 500 kV or higher, except for specialized works in service of operation of such electricity grids.

4. All activities, if involving the use of equipment, instruments or means which may encroach upon the electricity discharge safety distance according to voltage grade, shall be banned from being carried out in overhead electricity transmission line protection corridors. In special cases where it is due to urgent defense or security requirements, agreement must be reached with the electricity grid- managing units on necessary safety protection measures.

5. At a cross-section between an overhead electricity transmission line and a land road or railway, the minimum height of the electricity transmission line at the lowest point when the line is in the state of maximum sagging is 4.5 meters plus the voltage-based electricity discharge safety distance. Where the highest points on the transport means are higher than the 4.5 meter-height, the means owners must contact the high-voltage electricity grid-managing unit for application of necessary safety measures.

6. At a cross-section between an overhead electricity transmission line and a railway reserved for electric trams, the minimum height of the transmission line at the lowest point when the line is in the state of maximum sagging is 7.5 meters plus the voltage-based electricity discharge safety distance.

7. At a cross-section between an overhead electricity transmission line and an inland waterway, the minimum height of the electricity transmission line at the lowest point when the transmission line is in the state of maximum sagging is equal to the overhead clearance height according to technical grade of the inland waterway plus the voltage-based electricity-discharge safety distance. The waterway transport means, when traveling through cross-sections between overhead electricity transmission lines and inland waterways must ensure that their heights shall not exceed the overhead clearance heights according to technical grades of such inland waterways. The safety distance of the overhead electricity transmission lines cutting across sea routes shall be specified for each specific case.

8. When carrying out activities on land or underground near or in the overhead electricity transmission line safety protection corridors, which may affect the normal operation of the transmission lines or threaten to cause electric incidents or accidents, the units carrying out such activities must reach agreement with the electricity work-managing units on necessary safety protection measures.

The underground transmission cable tunnel in Singapore is 40 km long, 6 m wide, 60 m to 80 m deep above sea level. They can hold 1,200 Km of high voltage cable. This system was built with the amount more than $ 2.4 billion | Galaxy M&E

The underground transmission cable tunnel in Singapore is 40 km long, 6 m wide, 60 m to 80 m deep above sea level. They can hold 1,200 Km of high voltage cable. This system was built with the amount more than $ 2.4 billion | Galaxy M&E

3. Article 52. Underground electric cable safety protection

1. It is forbidden to dig holes, pile goods, drive piles, plant trees, build houses and other works, anchor vessels in underground electric cable protection corridors.

2. It is forbidden to discharge cable-corroding water and substances, equipment into underground electric cable protection corridors.

3. In case of discharging water and other substances outside the underground electric cable protection corridors, which may infiltrate, corrode and damage the cables, the owners or managers, users of dwelling houses or works from which such water or substances are discharged, shall have to handle them so as not to affect the cables.

4. When building works on land or dredging rivers, lakes within the underground electric cable protection corridors, the builders must notify such to the electricity work-managing units at least ten days in advance and must apply measures to protect the safety of the underground electric cables.

4. Article 53. Transformer station safety protection

1. Not to build dwelling houses, works or to plant trees of over two meters high in the transformer station safety protection corridors; not to encroach upon the walk-ins and walk-outs of transformer stations.

2. Dwelling houses or works built near transformer station protection corridors must ensure not to damage any parts of the stations.

Signs warning electric accidents according to international standards | Galaxy M&E

Signs warning electric accidents according to international standards | Galaxy M&E.

5. Article 57. Safety in use of electricity for production

1. Organizations and individuals using electricity for production must comply with the regulations on electric safety, regulations and technical standards on electric safety must conform with Vietnamese standards.

2. Electric equipment, systems of electric equipment, lightning-arresting and earthed systems must be pre-acceptance tested, periodically and extraordinarily checked according to the electric safety regulations and technical standards. The diagrams of these systems must be compatible with actual positions and be archived together with inspection minutes throughout the course of operation.

3. The internal transformer stations, high-voltage equipment and transmission lines must be installed and managed according to electric safety regulations and technical standards.

4. Electric equipment must conform to “Vietnamese Standard – Low-Voltage Electric Equipment – General Requirements on Protection against Electric Shocks” and “ Vietnamese Standard – Regulations on Earth-Connection and Air-Connection of Electric Equipment” to prevent electric shocks.

5. Electricity transmission lines, electric conductors must be designed and installed to ensure clear and airy production ground, thus avoiding mechanical or chemical impacts with may cause breakdowns. Metal structures of workshops, machinery, metal tubes must not be used as “neutral conductors,” except for special cases where separate designs approved by competent state bodies are required.

6. The electric systems in areas where exist inflammables, explosion-prone substances must be designed, installed and used according to the provisions of Clause 4, Article 54 of this Law.

7. Electric equipment used in minerals exploitation, electric instruments, mobile electric equipment, welding machine, electrolysis, electroplating equipment must conform to the relevant electric safety regulations and technical standards.

6. Article 58. Safety in use of electricity for daily-life and service activities

1. The total output of electric equipment used in offices, daily-life and service activities must conform to the designed capacity; the cross-sections and insulation durability of electric wires must conform to technical standards.

2. Heat-emitting electric equipment must not be placed near things easy to catch fire or to explode.

3. Electric equipment must be checked and maintained according to regulations, satisfy the electric safety technical standards and not cause dangers to users.

4. Electricity-using organizations and individuals shall have to organize the examination of safety of their respective electric systems, detecting and preventing in time dangers of electric incidents or accidents.

5. Low-voltage electricity grids shall be built only after their designs are approved.

6. Electric branch lines conducting electricity to dwelling houses, works must satisfy electric safety conditions, ensure beautiful look and not hinder activities of traffic means, ambulances, fire-fighting engines.

7. In three-phase four-wire electric circuits, automatic circuit breakers, switches, fuses and other circuit-breaking equipment must not be connected to the neutral wires.

8. In one-phase two-wire electric circuits, fuses and switches must be connected to the phase wire, but not to the neutral wire. Automatic circuit breakers and two-pole knife-switches are encouraged to be installed so as to simultaneously switch on/off of two wires.

Hàng rào điện thường được sử dụng với mục đích bảo vệ an ninh, quốc phòng | Galaxy M&E.

Electric fences are often used for security and defense purposes | Galaxy M&E.

7. Article 59. Using electricity as direct protection means

1. Using electricity as a direct protection facility means the use of electric source with appropriate voltage for direct connection with fences, barriers or shields of protected areas (hereinafter referred collectively to as electric fences) in order to prevent the infiltration into the protected areas and to emit alarming signals to persons guarding such areas.

2. Electricity shall be used as a direct protection means only when other protection measures have been applied inefficiently, and such must be permitted by competent state agencies.

3. Electric fences must be designed and installed to avoid all accidental contacts with people and cattle, to have danger signboards, not to affect the operation of electric system and not to cause danger to vicinities and living environment. The electric fence managers and users must be professionally trained in electricity.

4. The Minister of Public Security, the Minister of Defense shall, within the ambit of their respective tasks and powers, prescribe areas permitted for use of electric fences.

5. The Industry Minister shall prescribe standards and conditions for using electricity as direct protection means.

Mọi quy định về việc xây lắp, vận hành, sử dụng, sửa chữa... cơ điện đều hướng tới mục tiêu an toàn cho người lao động | Galaxy M&E.

All regulations on construction, operation, use, repair, etc. of electro-mechanics are aimed at employees’ safety goals | Galaxy M&E.

III. OTHER DOCUMENTS RELATED TO ELECTRIC SAFETY

In addition to the contents specified in the Electricity Law 2004, the Government also issued a number of documents guiding the implementation of the Law, detailed regulations of distance the safety discharge and conditions for dwelling houses in the grid protection corridor, regulations on electricity safety training …

For businesses, in addition to Government documents, there are additional specific policies to concretize the contents of the Electricity Law. These policies are designed based on the characteristics of the business and production of the business and together aim to improve the quality of electrical works, ensure absolute safety for people and property of the unit as well as of organizations and individuals concerned.

In order to help minimize the risk of electrical accidents, each organization or individual needs to equip themselves with knowledge related to electrical safety. Absolutely do not participate directly in the operation and repair of electrical equipment without mechanical and electrical expertise.

Galaxy M&E

GALAXY M&E RECOMMENDS 3 BASIC PROCEDURES TO PREVENT ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS

Galaxy-me-khuyen-cao-3-yeu-to-co-ban-giup-phong-tranh-tai-nan-dien-anh-dai-dien.

Most accidents suddenly happen in a short period of time (in seconds). Therefore, to minimize human damage, Galaxy M&E experts recommend the following 3 basic factors.

Many electrical accidents have sad consequences. Mild injuries can cause skin burns, which can be permanent injuries leading to death. Most accidents suddenly happen in a short time (in seconds). Therefore, to minimize human damage, Galaxy M&E experts recommend the following 3 basic factors.

1. Preventing electrical accidents with wiring systems

1.1. Bare conductors

Electrical accidents due to bare conductors often occur due to violations of safety distancing between people and electrical wires. In addition to a safe distance, all conductive materials that people use or carry should also comply with regulations on height, and minimum safe distance from bare conductor wires. There have been many accidents due to workers transferring long steel bars which collide with wires; steel construction scaffolding installed too close to high voltage lines; crane equipment colliding with bare electrical wires leading to electric shock, death …

Another type of an accident that may occur with bare conductors is caused by failing to ensure the minimum safe distance from the maximum point of the wire sag (the lowest point of the wire between two points) to the vehicles on the road. The overhead conducting line above the below traffic road must ensure a minimum height of 6 meters. In addition to ensuring height, there must be signs or signals to remind the maximum height of vehicles when in transit under bare conductors.

Types of voltage Voltage level Minimum safe distance
Low voltage Low voltage (<1kV) 2 m
Medium voltage electricity Voltage from 1 kV to 20 kV
Voltage from 20 kV đến 35 kV
10 m
15 m
High voltage electricity Voltage from 35 kV to 110 kV
Voltage > 110 kV
20 m
25 m

Non-sparking safety distance for conductors without using insulating materials| Galaxy M&E.

1.2. Underground cable

For underground electrical cables and insulated covers, accidents often occur due to excavators operating with conductors.

When making a plan of excavation, the boundary of the underground cable area must be demarcated. In many cases when excavating, electricity must be disconnected in cables to ensure absolute safety for people and equipment at the construction site.

Underground cables may also have broken insulation covers due to heavy mechanical equipment moving on the surface above the underground cables. This case is usually due to the previous work. The company which was in charge of constructing the cables did not comply with the minimum depth when burying the cables, and did not re-enforce the surface above the underground cable, leading to risks of electrical accidents. To limit these situations from happening, it is imperative that the underground cable construction company must bury the cable at a certain depth so that the pressure of vehicles moving on top of it does not cause the cable to stretch, crush or break the insulating cover. Cables under roads must be installed in steel or concrete pipes, with a diameter of at least 3 times greater than the diameter of cables.

2. Preventing electrical accidents caused by technical manipulations

One of the major causes of electrical accidents is human subjectivity. The reason for this is because workers are not fully equipped with safety knowledge when using and operating electrical equipment.

Thiếu chuyên môn về điện rất dễ dẫn đến tai nạn lao động | Galaxy M&E.

“Lack of electrical knowledge can easily lead to occupational accidents” | Galaxy M&E.

In order to limit and eliminate the causes of electrical accidents, during the technical process, the following principles must be followed:

  • Before participating in the operation of electrical equipment, especially in factories, industrial parks, export processing zones, workers must attend training courses about safe electrical operation. For specific types of equipment, it is necessary to have the guidance of electromechanical experts, equipment manufacturers, or distributors.
  • Before repairing / installing / executing … electrical equipment should be checked to see if they are all within safety regulations (working environment, air humidity, obstacles, conductor casing / equipment …). Before operating make sure no one is using / coming into contact with electrical equipment or wires. Only connect the circuit when all conditions have been checked and ensured that it is safe.
  • In the process of using and operating electrical equipment, workers must fully and properly use personal protective devices.
  • When constructing / repairing overhead electrical equipment, it is imperative for workers to stand on a good support system and with insulating panels (wooden or rubber insulated). Also, workers must use safety belts, helmets, gloves, insulated protective shoes, protective clothing in accordance with the work performed. In addition, when operating from a high place, in stead of having one person directly doing the process of repairing / connecting / installing electrical equipment, there must be another person standing near by to support. Supporters also play a role of alerting and handling unforeseen situations that may occur during work.
  • In factories, industrial parks, export processing zones, people without electrical engineering expertise are absolutely not allowed to get involved in the installation / repairing / operation of electromechanical equipment.
  • In offices / residential areas, people without electrical expertise should not repair any electrical equipment / wires without the help of someone with electrical engineering expertise. In case of emergency, the entire power line should be disconnected before conducting , repairing or connecting.

3. Preventing electrical accidents in working environments

The environment is one of the two factors that imposes danger caused by electricity. To minimize the occurrence of electrical accidents, when operating electrical equipment in different environments, the following things should be paid close attention to:

  • Wet environment: Must be fully equipped with protective gear, labor tools to ensure electrical insulation. Plus, prepare appropriate possible solutions for each type of wire / machinery / electromechanical equipment. In case personal equipment does not meet all the requirements of electrical safety for all body parts, it is absolutely forbidden to operate / repair electrical equipment.
  • In dusty environments, especially metallic dust, with conductive materials: Conductors must be highly insulated. In each conduit containing wires, it is allowed to contain only one wire, not many electrical wires. All electrical equipment must be contained in insulated boxes sufficiently to ensure no flashover.
  • In general working environment: Ground wires need to be installed which will take the current instead of the human body. In addition, when operating electrical equipment, workers should be fully equipped with labor protection to ensure insulation. When in contact with live metal parts, special tools with suitable insulation should be used.
Dây điện rơi xuống đất tạo thành mối nguy hiểm chết người | Galaxy M&E.

The electrical wires fall to the ground creating a deadly danger | Galaxy M&E.

In areas with step voltages: When detecting a broken conductor falling or exposed with the ground, immediately notify or ask the surrounding people for solutions, and separate people from the danger zone with a minimum distance of 20 m. If the person that detects the accident is in the danger area (< 20m), before informing people, she/he must jump using only one leg to get to the safety area, or have people around place insulated carpets, wooden planks to create a way to move out of the danger area.

Those are 3 basic factors to help prevent electrical accidents. In addition to the factors mentioned above, in order to guarantee safety for people and electrical equipment; production establishments, industrial parks and export processing zones must fully comply with the Electricity Law and State technical regulations and standards on Electrical Safety. In the event of an electrical accident, it is necessary to isolate the victim from the power source, then conduct first aid properly to minimize damage caused by electricity.

Galaxy M&E

6 BASIC CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS | GALAXY M&E

Galaxy-me-tong-ket-6-nguyen-nhan-co-ban-dan-den-tai-nan-dien-anh-dai-dien

In order to contribute additional knowledge about electrical safety during the labor process, Galaxy M&E would like to send readers an article about the causes of electrical accidents.

According to statistics of the Ministry of Labor – Invalids and Social Affairs, in 2016, there were 799 occupational accidents leading to death, where the cause of electrical insecurity accounted for 12.5%, equivalent to 107 people died. In order to contribute additional knowledge about electrical safety during the labor process, Galaxy M&E would like to send readers an article about the causes of electrical accidents.

Power supply plays an extremely important role in the construction process. In addition to the benefits that electricity brings, risks are always mentioned when utilizing electrical energy. Fire accidents, 70% of the reasons come from using or operating non-standard power consumption devices. Electrical accidents, more than 30% of the cases are fatal. In order not to cause unintended incidents, it is imperative that we understand the causes of electrical accidents.

The elimination of factors leading to electrical accidents should be informed right from the start when we plan a construction project. All risks of electrical accidents must be listed and solutions to prevent and eliminate them should be prepared.

Group of causes leading to electrical accidents

3 general causes of electrical accidents can be listed, as follows:

  • Accidental or intentional direct/indirect contact with electrical wire or equipment. Accidental cases of electrical contact often occur with objects with damaged insulation. Intentional cases occur when human operations do not comply with electrical safety regulations or due to lack of knowledge, experience in construction/repair/operation of electrical equipment. Some indirect cases of accidents are due to the failure to comply with the safe distance from the grid.
  • Workers’ bodies are exposed to electrical leakage in the ground due to the broken power lines hitting the ground, and the dissipation of current does not meet safety requirements. This phenomenon is called “step voltage”.
  • When one does not strictly follow the procedure of electricity switching. Switching off or cutting off the power without checking carefully whether the related circuits will be manipulated when there are parts operating in the network without notice. Sudden power interruptions prevent construction workers from preparing for accident prevention as well as appropriate manufacturing operations.

In addition to the three general causes mentioned above, electrical accidents also depend on many different factors such as the location of the current to the human body, the voltage, the contact time, the current intensity, the working environment. The content below will show in detail each specific cause.

1. The position of the body in contact with electrical current

The position of the body in contact with the electrical current is extremely important because it produces an electrical current that flows through the body. The current flowing through the body must be directed from an energized source to ground or metal objects to continue.

The most dangerous electrical current: Normally, the flow of electricity from the right hand, through the body leading to the foot to connect to the ground is the most dangerous flow to the human body. When the electrical current is in contact with the right hand, and your feet are wet and not protected with shoes, the current will continue to flow into the ground to form a closed circuit causing heart arrhythmia, which creates the heart to fail. In addition, the flow of electricity from the left to the right hand equals that the person will become an intermediate electrical connector device. This is also the flow of the highest risk of death compared to other forms.

Less dangerous electrical current: The flow of electricity from one leg to the other leads to less danger because the shortest current does not pass through vital organs such as the heart, the brain, and the lungs.

No

Electrical circuit

The amount of current flowing through the heart (%)

1 From the one leg to the other 0.4
2 From the one hand to the other 3.3
3 From the left hand to the legs 3.7
4 From the right hand to the legs 6.7

5

From the head to the legs 6.8

Due to the fact that electrical current flows vertically through the body via the heart, it is the most dangerous to humans.

2. The influence of voltage

Voltage changes the electrical resistance of the human body. Low voltage can create burns on the skin where electricity has been in contact with. Electrical burns are caused by heat. The colors of the burn are white or black. At the burn, the skin’s electrical resistance reaches 0 making that area becoming an electrical conductor.

With voltages less than 50 Volts there is rarely a burn; whereas at 220 Volts, it usually creates traces even when the time of contact with voltage is less than 1 second. With a voltage higher than 700 Volts, the skin is often punctured.

2.1. The higher the voltage is, the more dangerous it is to humans

For medium/high voltages electricity (> 1 kV, 20 kV, 35 kV, 110 kV…), the main conductor is a bare wire. When humans are close to the medium/high voltage wire, the current will discharge an electrical arc causing the heart to stop beating and paralyze breathing. This phenomenon is similar to lightning. After the victim falls into an uncontrolled status, the electricity will continue to burn the body.

The question is, why do medium and high voltage wires often have no electrical insulation?

The reason is because high voltage requires insulation layer (if any) to be thick, thus increasing the weight of the wiring. When the weight of the wiring system increases the strength of the electrical poles, the distance between the poles must be reduced to ensure the weight is taken care of properly. In addition, when there is an insulating layer, the heat emission of conductors will be affected. The heat generated is proportional to the voltage and duration of use. Increased heat will affect the physical properties of the conductor, causing fire / short-circuiting, even melting, and cutting off wires.

2.2. Safe voltage in factories, factories, offices or civil works

As stated in part 1 of the article, in addition to indirect contact with the current, the danger of direct contact voltage depends on two factors simultaneously: working environment and magnitude of the voltage. .

In humid environments (100% warmth), 6 Volts offer no danger to humans.

In factory environments, factories with dust (heavy metals or types of conductive dust), the maximum safe voltage is 12 Volts.

In a mechanical workshop, a carpentry workshop is dusty but the dust does not have conductive properties, 36 Volt is the maximum for safety.

In the working environment at offices / civil constructions, the maximum safety voltage is 60 Volts.

3. Time of impact of electrical current.

Although the magnitude of the current intensity does not pose a direct danger to humans, with the voltage exceeding the safety level (as stated in section 2), the longer the current exposed, the greater the danger level. With a shorter time of 0.2 seconds, the current flow is not dangerous, from 0.2 seconds or more, human life is at risk. However, there were cases where with only 0.1 second of contact with the current, the human being could have been in a dangerous status.

During the cardiac cycle, the heart has an average of about 0.1 seconds of rest (in the status between contraction and relaxation), in which the heart is very sensitive. When the electrical current does not impact the right time of the heartbeat, a small current (about 10mA) passing through has a level of danger equal to that of a 10A current entering the normal status. The effects of the current time is shown in the table below:

Current Intensity (mA)

The time affects humans

Body reaction

0.5 – 1 The level of how it feels depend on the skin status (dry or wet,…)
8 Strong reaction
10 From 4 s to 30 s Hard to get rid of the electricity
20 60 s Spasm in rib cage
30 30 s Respiratory paralysis
40 3 s Arrhythmia
75 1 s
300 110 ms Respiratory paralysis
500 100 ms Arrhythmia
1000 25 s Paralysis in heart
2000 Immediately Deactivation in the nervous system

5000

Burnt

Electrical current and impact time correspond to body’s reaction | Galaxy M&E.

4. Dangers of electricity when passing through the human body

The electrical current through the human body causes reactions that change the mental state, change blood components / cause burns. People begin to feel an electric current through their body when the current intensity is about 0.6 ~ 1.5 mA with alternating current and 5 ~ 7 mA with direct current. The harm of electrical current through the body depends on the amount of current that was just exposed to the body, the current flowing through the body and the current being retained in the body.

New current which was just exposed to the body: is a current within the range of 0.6 ~ 5 mA. It is also considered as when people are still capable of separating themselves from the electrical current.

Current through the body: is a current within 15 mA with alternating current and 50 ~ 80 mA with direct current.

Current retained in the body: A current of about 15 ~ 20 mA with alternating current and 80 mA with direct current. The electrical current retained in the body is extremely dangerous because it causes convulsions of the nervous system, muscle twitching and then paralysis, cardiac arrest leading to death.

Many studies of electrical accidents show that only with 20 ~ 25 mA AC which can create danger. Above 50 mA can lead to fatal accident.

Current Intensity

 Reactions in a human body
1 A Hearts stop beating
75 mA Heart muscle contraction
30 mA Numbed respiratory system

10 mA

Irreversible muscle contraction

5 mA

Slight feelings

Impact of electrical current on the human body – Galaxy M&E.

5. Electrical shock due to step voltage

The step voltage is the voltage that humans suffer when their feet come into contact within the current within the ground/floor. When a person moves within the range of the impact current, a step voltage will be applied to the feet, causing electric shock.

Stepping voltages mainly occur in cases when the grounding system is not up to standard or faulty or the conductor is broken / exposed and in contact with the ground.

The resistance of the soil through which the current flows will decrease with greater distance to the point where the current flows into the soil. At a certain distance, this resistance actually becomes zero. The area where the actual current is suppressed is called the potential area 0. At the point of touching the ground, the voltage which is relative to the ground will be: Uđ = Id.Rd (Id is the ground current intensity, Rd is the resistance point to the current).

Measures to prevent electric shock in the area where the step voltage is: When seeing the conductor break / open / fall to the ground / floor, immediately hop the trigger outside the range of 20 m from the point where the step voltage appears. At a distance of 20 m, the step voltage is approximately zero magnitude.

6. Electrical accident due to the working environment

The level of electrical safety depends very much on the working environment. As stated in section 2.2, in a humid environment the safety voltage limit is lower. Depending on the characteristics of the working environment, ones should adjust the level of safety during operation and the use of electrical equipment.

Low-risk environment: An environment where the air humidity does not exceed 75% when the temperature is between 5 ~ 25oC, and the working floor is made of insulating material (with large resistance), the gas does not contain suspended conductive dust.

Dangerous environment: Working environment with humidity above 75%, average temperature is above 25oC. Places where there is a lot of conductive dust such as coal grinding workshops, reinforced broaching workshops, mechanical filing processing … With room temperature above 30 degrees, workers are prone to sweating, reducing the resistance of the body, increasing the risk of shock electricity.

Extremely dangerous environment: is a working environment with a humidity above 100%. In this environment, walls, partitions, and floors often experience condensation. In addition to humidity, the working area is an explosive processing workshop, the explosive gas with a lot of dust / gases forming explosive mixtures are also extremely dangerous in these working environments. In the environment containing flammable substances, when the temperature of electrical equipment is high, if there is no good ventilation or heat dissipation system will be an indirect cause of fire. The initial fire may be in small scale, but if it is not detected in time, it will create fires on the wires, seriously threatening human life and surrounding assets.

Above are 6 causes of accidents caused by electricity. In addition to the general causes mentioned above, there are many other factors affecting the safety during construction, repair, operation … of electrical equipment. In order to ensure absolute safety during the labor process, minimize the causes of electrical accidents, factories/companies must necessarily be equipped with professional and experienced units, consulting, designing, constructing and installing electromechanical systems, instructions for use as well as providing mechanical and electrical maintenance services. Having so, the business has not only limited the number of work accidents caused by electricity, but also contributed to promoting the productivity of using equipment, reducing costs and time to manage the apparatus to help operate electrical safety. For workers working in an environment with many electrical equipment, before starting the work, it is necessary to understand and master the basic elements that help prevent electrical accidents.

Galaxy M&E

LET’S FIND OUT WHY THERE ARE NOT SO MANY WOMAN PURSUING MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL CAREER

Cùng Galaxy Me tìm hiểu tại sao nghề cơ điện lại ít nữ giới

Mr. Do Dang Binh – General Director of Galaxy Mechanical & Electrical Joint Stock Company said: In mechanical and electrical construction projects, the female workers become the fuel to the fire that warms the male’s hearts”.

Gender equality is a phrase that is mentioned a lot in this modern society. The goal of gender equality is to create respect, enjoyment and to affirm ones’ position the in society. Gender equality is not only reserved and biased for the woman as many people think. Equality requires two sexes, including men and women. However, why do some jobs only focus on the males to occupy specific position without or almost no female participants?

cung-galaxy-me-tim-hieu-tai-sao-nghe-co-dien-lai-co-it-nu-gioi-1-min

Health, toughness is a natural element of men.

HEALTH FACTORS

Strength is God’s gift to men. From the very beginning of mankind, while matriarchy still existed, male health factors were expressed. During this main period of time, although women had the role of being the main leader of the family, they were only able to bring staple food. Meanwhile, nutrients such as protein, and fatty foods were brought by men via the means of hunting.

In today’s society, the competition in daily life makes women deal with tasks through intuitive tools, emotions and languages. Instead of words, men tend to resolve disputes through actions that show strength (both rational and irrational gestures).

It is not accidental that the ancient saying “Having health is having everything”. A person who is tired and weak will find it hard to attain intellectual intelligence. Because he is naturally born with more toughness and endurance than women, male instincts have higher IQs than women. This has also been proven by scientists around the world. Professor Richard Lynn pointed out that men have an IQ 5 times higher than women. There are 3 times more men that have an IQ over 130 compared to that of women. There are 5.5 times more men that have an IQ over 145 compared to that of women.

Nghề kỹ thuật luôn đòi hỏi khả năng suy luận để giải quyết công việc một cách mạch lạc | Galaxy M&E

Technical careers always require a deductive ability to solve work in a coherent manner – Galaxy M&E.

LOGICAL THINKING

Unknowingly the elite, in the field of research and application of natural sciences attracted more men than women. The cause of this comes from the logical ability of that of men is often higher than women.

Mechatronics profession is based on the achievements of the field of natural sciences research. The inherent characteristics of the Mechatronics profession requires the ability to flexibly apply professional knowledge. For anyone who is doing Mechatronics, logical thinking is a must-have factor before starting this career. Not only relying on flexible improvisation, the Mechanical – Electrical profession also requires all operations to strictly comply with safety and technical regulations.

Mechanics – Electricity has no room for emotional outbursts, not favoring people who are prone to emotional thinking. Mechatronics requires compliance based on in-depth knowledge of, the ability to set up, coordinate thinking, and use well quantitative indicators. Because the attributes of the Mechanical – Electrical profession is contrary to the inherent instincts of women (emotional thinking, easily influenced by the outside world, like flexibility and harmony with the surrounding world), Mechatronics is a profession that prefers “strong” over “weak”.

Sự cố về điện luôn bất ngờ xảy ra và cần xử lý khẩn cấp | Galaxy M&E

Electricity problems are always unexpected and need urgent treatment – Galaxy M&E.

INDEPENDENT COOPERATION

Although today, the ability to work in groups and the community’s connections is always appreciated, but in certain circumstances, the ability to work independently is still considered the weight of success or failure of a job.

This is clearly demonstrated by the profession of Mechanical and Electrical works. A job cannot have too many people involved. An example shows this: When the substations have a problem, technical workers are forced to quickly overcome to ensure power supply for production. In times of urgency, mobilizing many people is impossible, technical workers have no other way but to promote the ability to fight independently, to use their knowledge and career skills to handle the problem.

Because women are often driven by emotions, their ability to work independently is often worse than that of men. In the context of pressure from many parties plus factors of expertise, health, situations requiring force to handle a situation independently, the Mechanical and Electrical profession is hard on women because of trust.

Mechanical - Electrical requires health, logical thinking, assertiveness and encouragement when needed.

Mechanical – Electrical requires health, logical thinking, assertiveness and encouragement when needed.

Electromechanics requires physical strength, intelligence, thinking ability and judgment. With the units operating in the field of construction, coal mines, mechanics, … it is difficult for employers to feel satisfied with female candidates. Due to the harsh working conditions, which always contain dangerous factors that threaten health and life, men are often the preferred choice instead of women. The choice comes from the ability to improvise situations, act quickly, persistently endure to overcome dangerous situations.

In addition to the above issues, working time is also a factor that is difficult for women to meet. For high-rise building projects, it is mandatory to stay overnight with not only the construction team but also the mechanical and electrical engineers. Every night completing the ceiling, pumping concrete, it’s the time for builders and electricians together “have a date”. Sometimes, the construction workers will have the opportunity to relax, sing and watch the sand and cement.

Due to the hardship and inherent hardship of the job, women are often absent from the construction site. Mr. Do Dang Binh – General Director of Galaxy Mechanical & Electrical Joint Stock Company said: “In mechanical and electrical construction projects, the female workers become the fuel to the fire that warms the male’s hearts.”

Although the hardships of men’s work have been continuing, conferences requiring gender equality for men are unlikely to occur. At the World Economic Forum 2015, on the occasion of International Women’s Day, a British actress – Emma Watson said: “Today, we present the HeForShe campaign. We want to end gender inequality and to do this, we need everyone involved.”

The voice of fighting for women’s rights is still being raised. Society is still and will always be more civilized. Artificial intelligence, robots will replace the heavy and dangerous work. When science reaches the level of just imagining and integrating emotional elements, robots will carry out duties such as mechanical, electrical, constructing… men will reduce. Before a beautiful vision becomes a reality, it is necessary to think logically, have enough ability, flexibility, physical strength, and mental strength to engage in dangerous places to create machines for heavy work which is hard for human to perform.

Galaxy M&E